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1. 3. 2008








Oblíbeným nástrojem na Madagaskaru je valiha. Na ní musí umět hrát každý bez výjimky. Pokud kojenec nehraje, není to rodilý malgaš. Co že je to ta valiha?  Je to strunný nástroj, zhotovený z asi jeden metr dlouhého dutého bambusu. Bambus ovšem tvoří pouze krk, tělo nástroje je z ebenu. Přes krk je natažen libovolný počet strun o libovolné tloušťce. Nástroj se nedá naladit a tudíž ani rozladit.Hudebník si napne struny dle svého hudebního vkusu,čímž zvýší či sníží výšku tónu struny a vesele brnká.

Nástroj prý pochází z Indonésie, kde se na něj dodnes hraje.





Valiha toritenany
<img src="../Images/Instruments/Animation_anglais/Conservateurs/maauas11c.gif" width=45 height=45 border=0 usemap="#maauas11cMap">
Note Book
Valiha toritenany
Unknown date
Bamboo with strings built into the body, raised by small bridges made of gourd. 2 thong hoops (zebu)
1,20 cm x 8 cm to 10 cm
Museum of Art and Archeology of the University of Antananarivo, Madagascar

In Madagascar, the valiha is classified as a traditional musical instrument. I chose this instrument because I am particularly fond of the sound it makes and of its tubular shape. I have already listened to this instrument on television and in concert. There are various types of valiha but the one I am going to describe is the valiha toritenany.

The valiha originated in Southeast Asia (Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam) before the birth of Christ. Its name comes from the word vadya, which means a sacred musical instrument. The valiha toritenany is the first type that existed in Madagascar. It is made from a bamboo stick with knots at distant intervals. Its length is around 1.2 m with a diameter of about 10 cm. Fibres are wound in a regular fashion around the cylindrical tube, the number varying with the maker. This one has both ends wrapped with a kind of tightly wound tendril or vine. There are one or two movable pumpkinwood bridges under each end with which players can tune their instrument. The valiha has a weak sound so to intensify its resonance and produce a shriller tone, the maker winds the valiha strings in metal. These are called valiha jihy-vy. The valiha that currently exist are made of tin.

The valiha can accompany all instruments; it can be played as a solo instrument or played in groups for folk, traditional popular, contemporary popular and modern music. In the royal era, the valiha was reserved for the use of the nobility. But that did not prevent slaves from developing their own talent and familiarizing themselves with the instrument despite the threat of punishment from their masters. Out of fear, they pretended that they did not know how to play. Sometimes, however, their skill was even greater than those of their masters.

The valiha is also played during family events, such as second burials, in concerts or for religious festivals. The instrument is held either between the legs or under the arm, it is played with both hands and plucked by the fingers. However, the most talented players no longer pluck the strings but brush them very lightly. The valiha has a simple tonality and can play lead or accompaniment.

These days, valiha makers give each of their instruments a name depending on the shape they choose. For example, the valiha in the shape of a suitcase is called a valiha vata and the one in the shape of a dugout canoe is called a valiha lakana. The bamboo section has sometimes even been lengthened to build a huge or giant valiha.

A chromatic valiha has been created as a result of technical development of the instrument, in recent times.




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